Disc springs are conical washers with elastic properties. These springs are resistant to axial loads, proportionally to the displacement produced in the piece. The main characteristic of these elements is the capacity for offering very high forces in reduced spaces, improving what we would obtain with another type of springs.

Types of elastic washers

It is usual to include within the same definition the different types of elastic washers in the market. However, each type has its own characteristics, being prepared to be applied on  dynamic works or only with the function to support static loads, maintaining the tension.

The different types of washers are detailed in the menu "product information". There are other models for specific functions to work together with bearings, valves and other applications. The main types of washers are these:

  • Belleville spring washers: Static or dinamic aplications. Designed as per Americal standar in imperial units
  • Disc springs: Static or dinamic aplications. Springs with great accuracy. Most of sizes are standar DIN 2093
  • Flange washers: Static aplications. Designed to maintain a high load at the bolt joints



This type of springs allows to carry out combinations of them in a simple way in order to obtain a spring with a displacement force curve which meets our necessities.

This type of units or stack have a practical sense for DIN 2093 springs. As they are conical washers, they can be stacked in parallel (in the same direction) or serial (opposing), resulting in stacks that correctly guided, behaves like a spring. In this sense, parallel stack increases the spring force proportionally according to the number of pieces, whereas serial stack increases the displacement proportionally to the number of units. Combinations of both techniques can be carried out in order to obtain more complex behaviours.



These products can be made in different materials. The specifications regarding material are provided.

Usually, they are steels with different characteristics according to the type of washer and its use. Stainless steels and other alloys are also used for withstanding corrosion and/or temperature, such as Inconel, which combines resistance to corrosion with resistance to high and low temperatures, offering a non-magnetic material. In the menu, in each type of elastic washer, a description of the possible materials and their characteristics is given.



Thanks to Almen and László equations contained in DIN 2092, the force in relation to the displacement in the disc springs or vice versa can be calculated. These equations, which are based on the spring deformation when submitted to a specific force, allow us to calculate the complete force curve vs deflection of that piece. These calculations are also applicable to stacks of serial or parallel disc springs and for different materials.

In CALCULATION PROGRAM , you will find our program for download, which enables these calculations to be made in a simple way. Likewise, based on these equations and through our program, tensions, at different points of the spring, and fatigue can be calculated based on the variation of displacement submitted to.

This information is very useful to determine the suitability of stacks for a specific application. However, it should always be considered as an approximation and not as exact data.


Special measures

Springs in other dimensions and materials can be manufactured in addition to the measures determined by the regulations, the ones which are standard and and other established as non-standard are included in this catalogue, In order to do that, please contact our engineers, who will advise you on the dimensions, materials, finishing and coating of the piece to achieve the operation wanted.

Belleville Washer Catalog